How not to die?

8288 2020-05-06 16:19

Eating in the right way can significantly influence your health. Heard various advice from different sources, you may have difficulties to tell which one is the most helpful. The book “How Not to Die” provided eight practical suggestions backed up by scientific researches to help you establish a healthy diet.

Adopting a plant-based diet

The plant-based diet has been proven to have a much positive result on health than other foods we have in the US society. A China-Cornell-Oxford research project studied the menu of Chinese people in the 1980s. They found the Guizhou Province has the lowest mortality rate of coronary disease among men under 65, where people consumed the least animal-based food.

Additionally, plant-based diets can facilitate the patient’s recovery. Lifestyle-medical pioneers Nathan Pritikin and Dean Ornish put patients with advanced heart disease on plant-based diets, and then they witnessed significant improvements in alleviating their symptoms. For example, the harmful plaque in patients’ arteries dissolved faster than usual.

Having more fruits, especially berries

Four servings of fruit, including one type of berries, per day, is essential in a healthy diet. A single extra serving of fruit each day has proven to result in a 24-percent decline in the possibility of having Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Notably, berries are particularly crucial due to their positive influence on liver function, cancer-resistance, and immune system. In 2014, a study taken among 14 patients revealed that their polyp load declined remarkably after nine months of having black raspberries.

Vegetables are indispensable

Vegetables play a vital role in preventing diseases. Known as “queen of greens”, kale can reduce people’s cholesterol levels. In a three-month study taken in 2008, high-cholesterol-level patients were asked to take three to four shots of kale juice every day. The proportion of beneficial cholesterol increased significantly, which was equal to the effect of running for 300 miles. Also, cruciferous vegetables help boost liver and lung functions.

Thus it is advised that two of the five daily servings should be leafy veggies (e.g., kale, arugula, and chard). Another two could be carrots, beets, or mushrooms. And finally, one serving of cruciferous vegetables like broccoli, cabbage, or cauliflower.

Recommending beans and whole grains for every meal

It is recommended by the American Institute for Cancer Research that beans or legumes should be included in every meal since they contain an animal-free protein as well as fibers. Navy and pinto beans can also be a good alternative to decrease bad cholesterol for people who don’t like soy much. They can also function in slowing down sugar absorption and relaxing stomach. Similar to beans, people should also take whole grains three times daily. In 2015, research found that people who involve whole grains in diets live longer.

Taking more nuts and seeds for better nutrition

The Global Burden of Disease Study conducted between 1990 and 2010 found that eating too few seeds and nuts were the third-leading dietary cause for death and disability all over the world. Even a single serving of brazil nuts is equivalent to statins medicine in lowering cholesterol levels. Nuts and seeds facilitate the detoxification of excess iron. They can also build up bone density. Among all the seeds, chia, hemp, pumpkin, sesame, and sunflower seeds are recommended. It is an excellent alternative to sauces and dressings of your daily meals.

Placing herbs and spices in food

Not only can herbs and spices add flavor to a dish, but they are also essential in preventing diseases, especially cancer. Among all the food groups, they have the highest levels of antioxidants. In a study taken in 2010, Alzheimer participants who took saffron received better cognitive function outcomes than those who had a placebo. Additionally, spices like cloves and cinnamon can reduce depression because of an enzyme inhibited in them.

It is worth mentioning that turmeric is proven to be the best in preventing cancers among all the herbs and spices. Due to the fact that turmeric disappears rapidly, having it with black pepper can slow down the process and help absorption. Curry powder is a decent choice since it usually contains both pepper and turmeric. However, turmeric isn’t for everybody. People with gallstones and kidney stones should restrict their intake.

Making water your first choice of beverages

Theoretically, a human should drink five 12-ounce beverages every day, and pure water is always the best choice. It is claimed by many articles that drinking eight glasses of water per day is a must, yet there is barely scientific evidence on that. Our daily intake of water comes from not only beverages but also fruits and vegetables.

In addition to water, coffee and tea can also be a good alternative since they are all good for health to some extent. For instance, research conducted by Tufts University revealed that tea functioned significantly in dropping blood pressure.

Credit Card Payment Processing

5 Parties

  1. Cardholder: an authorized user of the card. e.g., anyone who has a credit card.
  2. Issuer: an institution that issues credit cards to its users. e.g., Chase, BOA, discover, etc.
  3. Merchant: an entity that provides products or services, and accepts payments via credit cards. e.g., Uber, Doordash, etc.
  4. Acquirer: who provides card services to merchants. e.g., BOA Merchant Services, Chase Paymentech.
  5. Electronic payments networks: a clear-house for acquirers and issuers. e.g., VisaNet, MasterCard, Discover, American Express, etc.

Are Square and Stripe acquirers? No, they are payment aggregators.

2 Workflows

  1. Authorization: The cardholder provides the card / card info to the merchant, who processes it and sends (card number, amount, merchant ID) to the acquirer. The acquirer contacts the issuer via the electronic payments networks. The issuer checks against the credit line and fraud-prevention system, and then authorize or decline the transaction.

  2. Clearing / Settlement

    1. batching: At the end of the business day, the merchant asks the acquirer with a batch of payment information for clearing.
    2. clearing and settlement: the acquirer coordinates the clearing with the issuer via the electronic payments networks, and the issuer settles the funds and bookkeeps the transaction for the cardholder.

Why some ideas survive while others die? Two principles: being memorable and making people eager to spread. In the book Made to Stick, the authors have summarized six elements to make ideas stick, SUCCES for short, which represents Simple, Unexpected, Concrete, Credible, Emotional, and Story.

Simple - Cut down to the key message of an idea

Too often, we want to explain an idea thoroughly, but revealing too much detail is not good for people to understand. They will soon forget all the details and even the core message. We should simplify our message and understandably convey the idea, just like journalists would create good headlines for their reports to grasp readers’ attention.

Unexpected - Draw people’s attention by surprising them

The human brain would neglect selectively to things familiar to save energy. Only something surprising can draw its attention. The fact implies sticky ideas are also unexpected. It proves to be effective to use curiosity gaps to grasp attention. If you present some surprising facts or statistics in your idea, curiosity will drive people to get more information.

Concrete - Use concrete materials to be understood and remembered

Abstract terms are hard to understand, let alone to be remembered. When communicating an idea, we would better use concrete and understandable terms, along with examples and descriptive imagery.

Credible - Make an idea believable so it can spread

Ideas ought to be credible if they want to be spread out. Generally, there are three ways to add credibility to a plan. The story has experts or people with relevant experiences to back up Use realistic facts and statistics to add credibility to the story Encourage the audience itself to be a reference

Emotional - Appeal to people’s emotions rather than present dry data

Imagine we have the campaign to ask people to donate to starving African children. There are two options: presenting the population of starving children, or showing a picture of a child in need of a donation. Comparatively speaking, people are more likely to take action upon the latter because it appeals directly to human emotions. Therefore sticky ideas should focus on emotional triggers instead of dry facts.

Story - Inspire people to action by telling a story

It is a common mistake to focus on an empty slogan without any story when people are communicating ideas. A slogan is sticky, but it can not inspire people to take action like a story. For example, Subway has benefited immensely from the true story of Jared Fogle, who was an overweight man but managed to slim down by having two Subway meals per day.

Running a business can be like playing an infinite game in which there is no final score to determine the ultimate winner. So the main goal for each participant is to stay in the game as long as possible. Nowadays, too many people analyze businesses based on their stock prices. It seems that they forget one point: high profits at one time may collapse to zero overnight if the business cannot sustain.

To create businesses that last for generations, we should get back to long-term thinking and focus on making products people want instead of striving for short-term revenue. Simon Sinek, the author of The Infinite Game, introduces how to equip your business with the infinite mindset.

Start with a Just Cause

As Adam Smith put in the book The Wealth of Nations, the interests of consumers should come before the interests of the company. However, in 1970, Milton Friedman published an article writing that the primary responsibility of any free-market enterprise is to make money for shareholders, which signals a shift from being consumer-centric to being shareholder-centric.

A Just Cause is an inspirational goal that encourages your employees to fight for. If companies strive for longevity in the Infinite Game, their goals need to be consumer-centric. If they do not follow this principle, take the GPS device company Garmin, for example. It claimed to be “the global leader in every market we serve” and mentions nothing about their customers in the vision. Then no wonder why it is only worth one-third of its value in 2007.

Build trusting teams

A company culture of distrust is fatal to business operations. If employees do not trust the company, poor performance, or even unethical behaviors may take place. And this is due to the simple reason that employees don’t know whether to speak up honestly when something unpleasant happens.

Such is the case of Ford Motor Company before the year 2006. The CEO at that time had a habit of blaming and even firing those who brought bad news to him. And then, gradually, employees only reported good news on meetings. The culture of distrust was turned around only after Alan Mulally became the new CEO, who took actions to encourage everyone to bring up bad news.

Be flexible and learn from worthy rivals

Whether in the sports field or the business world, a good opponent forces you to improve yourself and learn new techniques. When Allan Mulally became the CEO of Ford Motor Company, Ford had lost 25 percent market share over the past 15 years. Instead of adopting promotion strategies, Allan turned to study rivals like Toyota and Lexus, trying to figure out why consumers preferred those cars over Ford.

It is the same case with Steve Jobs. He changed Apple’s plans instantly when seeing Xerox working on the GUI technology and decided to implement this new technology on Apple’s new computers. Now you can see how successful that move is. And this cannot happen if Jobs cannot embrace new technologies with his flexibility and fast execution.

Hacking Product Management

29738 2020-03-20 16:09

How to define, design, and sell a product that people like to use? How to manage self and a team to deliver results effectively? Here are the answers from industry leaders and renowned professors.

Join us on Telegram or WeChat(id: onetptp) to discuss and upgrade your PM skills.

  • Product Management
    • Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products? - Habits make you do things like no brainers. Businesses that know how to cultivate customer habits have a significant competitive advantage over others. The Hook Model teaches us how to form a user habit in four steps: trigger, action, variable reward and investment.
    • Telemetry Product Management Framework - A key role of product management is to make sure product development efforts are focused. The telemetry spreadsheet helps you visualize the roadmap, balance resource allocation, and hence keeps the project on track.
    • The Hierarchy of Engagement - To maximize the chances of building an enduring non-transactional customer company, we should build enduring engagement in three levels - growing engaged users, retaining users, and self-perpetuating.
    • Elements of Value - When customers evaluate a product or a service, they weigh the perceived value against the asking price. Products and services deliver fundamental elements of value that address four kinds of needs: functional, emotional, life-changing, and social impact.
    • MMRs, neutralizers, differentiators - There are three types of product features: MMRs, neutralizers, and differentiators. Customers often provide feedback on MMRs and neutralizers. The product management team must take responsibility for reinforcing the startup’s differentiator.
    • The 9x Effect - Companies often overweight their new product by a factor of 3 while consumers overweight the old product’s benefits by a factor of 3. So you have to be 9x better than the existing alternatives to win their market, which is called The 9x Effect.
    • 4 Guidelines for Website User Experience - To deliver a better website user experience, we concluded four guidelines from the book Don’t Make Me Think, Revisited: start with simple navigation; make an impressive home page; use visual hierarchies to present information; improve mobile loading speed.
    • Change Aversion - People hate new changes in a product they are already familiar with. To avoid change aversion, you can let users understand in advance and afterward, allow them to switch, ask them to give feedback, and finally remember to follow-through.
  • Strategy and Decision Making
    • Good Strategy, Bad Strategy 1 - A good strategy is often surprising but reasonable. A bad strategy is a formalism. Here are four hallmarks to detect bad strategies: fluff; failure to face the challenge; mistaking goals for strategy; bad strategic objectives.
    • Good Strategy, Bad Strategy 2 - Bad strategies are easier to be made in terms of three facts: it’s painful to make a choice; people like to follow templates without thinking; people tend to misbelieve that a positive attitude and a strong desire can earn them everything they want.
    • The Second Curve - When you know where you should go, it is too late to go there; if you always keep your original path, you will miss the road to the future.
    • Case Study: Amazon acquiring Whole Foods - Driven by the goal to take a cut of all economic activity, Amazon decides to develop grocery services. However, its grocery business has no first-and-best customer due to cost disadvantage. By acquiring Whole Foods, Amazon is buying more than a retailer - it’s buying a customer.
  • Marketing
    • What is a Market? - If two people buy the same product for the same reason but have no way they could reference each other, they are not part of the same market.
    • TAL and the Chasm
    • Why take niche-and-next approach? - If the goal is to take over the mainstream market, why should we focus on the niche market in the beginning? First, You have to satisfy your customers so that they can be reference-able to others. Second, pragmatists favor market leaders. So be a big fish in a small pond.
    • Growth Phase 1: PMF - According to Ryan Holiday, to begin with PMF, we need to start with MVP and evolve with feedback, use data and information to back PMF, understand the needs of customers as early as possible and develop answers with the Socrates method.
    • Growth Phase 2: growth hack - How to find your growth hack? Ryan Holiday has some advice for you. Target a few hundred or a thousand key people, not millions. Do not target all people - target the right people. Focus on new user sign-ups instead of awareness. Use growth techniques.
    • Growth Team - A growth team is a team with the responsibility to measure and improve the flow of users. There are three mandatory skills of a growth leader: building growth models, developing experimentation models and creating customer acquisition channels.
    • AARRR Model - AARRR is a startup metrics developed by Dave McClure: Acquisition - how do users find you? Activation - do users have a great first experience? Retention - do users come back? Referral - do users tell others? Revenue - how do you make money?
    • Buyer Persona - To better sell products, you need to know your customers better. A generic buyer profile doesn’t help in knowing his buying decision. The most effective way to build buyer personas is to interview buyers who have weighed their options but finally made the decision you expect.
    • CAC / LTV / PBP - Customer Acquisition Cost is the cost to convert a customer to buy a product/service. Lifetime Value is the estimated net profit we can make from a customer. Payback Period refers to the period of time required to recoup the funds expended in an investment.
    • Lean Analytics: Simplified - Data and metrics play a vital role in business. The book Lean Analytics suggests some metrics for start-up founders to assess their success. By choosing the metrics more effectively, the entrepreneur can navigate through the unknown more effectively.
    • Lean Analytics: Slides
    • Mobile Analytics Metrics
    • How to run a tech community? - Why do people need the tech community? What is the value proposition of it? What are the interesting examples we can learn from? Why does it align with your blockchain company?
    • SaaS Sales Performance Metrics - David Schneider, ServiceNow’s President of Customer Ops, shares his sales performance metrics for SaaS companies that are aiming for hyper-scale.
    • Persuasive Copywriting - Copywriting is the simplest and most direct way of impressing your customers. Persuasive copywriting = three means of persuasion + copywriting. Three means of persuasion are emotion, logic, and credibility.
    • 6 Elements to Create Sticky Ideas - Why some stories managed to spread quickly, live long and prosper? In Made to Stick, Heath brothers summarize six elements to create sticky ideas – Simple, Unexpected, Concrete, Credible, Emotional, and Story, SUCCES for short.
  • People Management
    • Tips for First-time Managers - Julie Zhuo, the vice president of product design at Facebook, based on her own experiences as a first-time manager, gives some useful advice on how to become a good manager in her book The Making of a Manager.
    • Managerial Leverage - Managerial leverages can maximize the output of an organization. Those leverages are information gathering, information-giving, decision-making, nudging and being a role model.
    • Task-Relevant Maturity - A manager’s most important responsibility is to elicit top performance from his subordinates. Unfortunately, one management style does not fit all. A fundamental variable to find the best management style is task-relevant maturity (TRM) of the subordinates.
    • Managers and Bozos - Steve Jobs coined the phrase “bozo management”. Bozos referred to the professional managers who know how to manage but don’t know how to DO anything. It turns out the best managers are great individual contributors who never ever want to be a manger but decide to be one.
    • 3 Skills to Boost Group Performance - It is a common misbelief that the performance of a group hinges on the average capacity of its members. The truth is, the interaction and communication among group members are much more impactful. From the book The Culture Code, we conclude three skills to improve group performance: creating a safe working environment, showing your vulnerabilities, establishing a common purpose.
    • Making progress 30km/day - The Amundsen team successfully reached the South Pole first and won the competition with the Scott team. The success of the Amundsen team lies in their abundant resources and making progress 30km per day no matter what the weather is.
    • Good to Great - Leading a company to leap from good to great is like pushing a giant flywheel to breakthrough. Disciplined people, disciplined thought and disciplined action are indispensable.
    • Bikeshedding - Bikeshedding refers to the fact that members of an organization give disproportionate weight to trivial issues. To overcome the bikeshedding, we should have a clear agenda of the meeting and not mix complex topics with easy ones.
    • Ownership - The authors of the book Extreme Ownership were once task unit leaders of US Navy SEAL in Iraq. They draw on their experiences in the battlefields and conclude five rules for successfully leading a Navy SEAL team, providing useful references for any organization.
    • Building momentum for startup - The acceleration of rockets takes a propeller, and the acceleration of startups take the similar. There are two propellers: 1. Listen to the customer. 2. fast execution. How to achieve these two? Here is the answer from Suhail Doshi.
  • Communication
    • Nonviolent Communication - Judgments and violence are tragic expressions of unmet needs. Nonviolent communication can improve communication quality by valuing everyone’s needs. It is NOT about being nice or making others do what we want.
    • Tailoring the arguments for persuading the decision maker - To improve the chances of success in persuading decision-makers, the way of message delivering should be considered carefully. There are five decision-making categories and they should be treated with different strategies.
    • Bullshit Detector - North Americans bullshit the most. Develop your mental device to detect deception, dishonesty, corruption, fraud, insincerity, hypocrisy and falsity.
    • Small Talking - Initiating a conversation with strangers is the biggest social fear. Actually, people often appreciate it when you make an effort to speak with them. Here we provide some ideas on how to start a small talk, what we should talk about and how to end it in a courteous way.
    • Exactly What to Say: Keywords for Impacts - There are several keywords and templates of sentences that can help you influence people. For example, a sentence like “I’m not sure it’s for you, but” is a non-intrusive recommendation. Saying “are you open-minded to do something” can encourage people to do something.
  • Managing Self
    • Time Management: Principles - It is very inspiring to learn time management from system admins (SAs) because we share the same challenges such as endless interruptions, simultaneous projects, and rush requests. SAs’ principles of time management may solve your problem of time management.
    • Time Management: Focus - Focus is the best friend of productivity. A fundamental work we can do to stay focused is to de-clutter our brain. Always be aware of stress and sleep level. Remember an un-distracting environment is necessary. Deal with interruptions effectively.
    • Time Management: Routines - Routines are useful tools in time management since they enable us to think once and do many. A routine can be anything in real life that has certain patterns. Try to develop your own routines!
    • Time Management: Cycle System - The key to perfect follow-through is the cycle system. It is called the cycle because it repeats every day and the output of one day is the input to the next. Three tools are used in the process - a to-do list, a calendar and a list of long-term goals.
    • Work-life balance - Some job and career choices are fundamentally incompatible with being meaningfully engaged on a day-to-day basis with a young family. We should be careful with time frame and approach balance in a balanced way.
    • How to Get Rich? - How to get rich without getting lucky? Naval Ravikant summarized a few tips for you. Seek wealth instead of money or status. Understand that ethical wealth creation is possible. Ignore people playing status games. You’re not going to get rich renting out your time. You must own equity.
    • Taking truly restful breaks - People will burn out when having too much pressure. A truly restful break can help them to recover willpower and the power of attention. To take truly restful breaks, you need to fully switch off, take short breaks early and often and get out of the office.
    • Loving long with healthy diets - American Journal of Medicine says, disease, not age, is the most significant cause of death among over-100-year-old patients. And diets tend to the primary reason for disease. People often underestimate how food affects their physical and mental health.
  • Business Model
    • Stages of Company Building - Initial Product > PMF > GTM Scale & Consistency > Org Building > Enduring Public Company
    • Economic Moat - An economic moat is the ability to maintain advantages over its competitors. It can provide protection for business’ long-term profits and market share. Technology is not an economic moat as it will always be duplicated.
    • Why Startups Have to Innovate? - Why startups have to innovate? Anna Karenina principle answers this question. Each successful company earns a monopoly by solving a unique problem whereas all failed are the same. If a startup does not innovate but copy from the market leader, people will not buy it.
    • Intangible Economy - The intangible economy is rising. It has three characteristics: Intangible assets can expand rapidly. Intangible assets are high-risk and irrecoverable investments. Intangible assets are easy to be duplicated.
    • Infinite Game - Business can operate like an Infinite Game and the ultimate goal of participants is to stay in the game as long as possible. In order to achieve that, businesses should get back to long-term thinking. In the book The Infinite Game, the author suggests companies need to have a Just Cause, build trusting teams, be flexible to changes, and learn from worthy rivals so as to gain advantages in the game.
  • Leadership
    • Start with Why - People don’t buy what you do. They buy why you do it. Simon Sinek coined a phrase ‘Golden Circle’ which has three tiers, from core to exterior - why, how, and what. However, average leaders think from what, how, to why.
  • Corporate Ladder
    • Sponsor - Successful Caucasian men receive more career guidance than women and multicultural professionals even though more women have mentors than men. The reason is mentors can not help with promotions but sponsors can.
    • 12 Habits that can Boost Women’s Promotion - There are 12 habits American women think would be helpful to their promotions. For example, remember to claim your achievements often because others will not notice and reward your contributions unless you say it. Also, you need to be aware that expertise is not the only criteria.

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